Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the parasite called
Plasmodia. It is transmitted by Female Anopheles Mosquito. An.
culicifecies in Rural area & An. stephensi in urban area.
Vector bionomics :
VECTORS OF MALARIA
· There are many vectors of malaria
· Anopheles culicifacies is the main vector of malaria
It is a small to medium sized mosquito with Culex like sitting
posture 1. Feeding habits
· It is a zoophilic species
· When high densities build up relatively large numbers
feed on men
2. Resting habits
· Rests during daytime in human dwellings and cattlesheds
3. Breeding places
· Breeds in rainwater pools and puddles, borrowpits, river
bed pools, irrigation channels, seepages, rice fields, wells, pond
margins, sluggish streams with sandy margins.
· Extensive breeding is generally encountered following
4. Biting time
· Biting time of each vector species is determined by its
generic character,but can be readily influenced by environmental
Most of the vectors, including Anopheles culicifacies, start biting
soon after dusk. Therefore, biting starts much earlier in winter
than in summer but the peak time varies from species to species.
Life cycle of malaria parasite
1.Sporozoites in salivary gland.
2.Oöcysts in stomach wall.
3.Male and female gametocytes.
5.Release of merozoites from liver.
6.These enter red cells where both sexual and asexual cycles continue